computer history

Computer History


Computer History

computer history – The history of the computer, which describes the origins of computers and its role in human life, can be read in this article to get acquainted with all that has led humans to build computers.In fact, a computer is a machine that is made of electronic and electromechanical components whose main purpose is to receive information that; Based on its own instructions and processing, it sends the result to people as output, and the computer is recognized as one of the main components in all sciences.

In the past, humans inevitably used very simple additions or subtractions for their calculations and counting, which was very time consuming and also had its own mistakes. For this reason, from the very beginning, man has sought to build and create a device that, in addition to providing these numbers and statistics to humans, has a high speed of action.Many people and scientists in each period have presented and made a piece that was used to some extent for the calculations of individuals in their time. But in each period and with the use of any device, its shortcomings were also identified for individuals.

If we look at the exact history of computers, we should refer to much earlier periods, which can be referred to the first person in history, who was also introduced as the father of computer science, Charles Babbage with the invention of the machine that calculates polynomials. It was known as a differential machine, and after its introduction, Charles Babbage decided not to invent another device that was more complete than the previous one and that could be programmed.This new device and Charles Babbage’s new invention were very similar to the computers available to people today, and according to this invention, he is known as the father of computer science in history.

Charles Babbage’s function was to insert programs and data into his invented machine by inputting it using a punch card, and then a device that was a curved and bell-shaped printer. Received outputs.One of the interesting and obvious features that this car had created for itself and made 4 chapters in this car, made its car a century ahead of its time. They are referred to as hand-made, and this has been one of the major problems for a device with many parts, including thousands upon thousands of parts. This project, which has been very helpful in calculating people, has resulted in the British government He dismantled it due to lack of funds and abandoned the part-time Babbitt analytical engine. An analysis was developed and completed, and in 1906 they introduced their device.

Computer History

Eventually, Babbage’s work and results were forgotten, so in 19430, many people were constantly looking to build a new device with better performance, until finally, during World War II, a project by Professor Penz Moore, a university professor. Pennsylvania and another inventor started a research project called ENIAC, which means electronic numerical computer.As a result, with the construction of this computer, which was very bulky and very heavy, and its purpose was to speed up mathematical calculations, in 1946, it officially started operating. Today, with very advanced science, it is processing and calculating a chip that can be the size of a fingernail and is several hundred times faster than this computer.

This very powerful and huge device could hold up to 72 24-digit numbers and work with them, and as one of the first computers known from the book, it has now achieved a lot of digital growth.In the early twentieth century, people used analog computers for their computations, which were more sophisticated but unpredictable and inaccurate.Because these types of computers did not have the high accuracy compared to electronic digital computers, the shot was taken to finish the production of analog computers and to be replaced by digital electronic computers.

Holt Packard was the first person to use the term personal computer in their advertising. When the first microprocessor introduced its commercial design, the 4004, it housed 2,300 transistors, which was equivalent to the power of the ENIAC computer.

To compare this computer with today’s computers, we can say that it is 108 kHz or two thousand times slower than today’s chips. As a result, and in the continuation of this process, the Altair 8800 computer was designed and built, which of course cannot be said. Royan is considered to be the first personal computer.But the point of this computer is that due to the high sales of this type of computer, it has achieved a lot of success. The title was the first machine to activate it.

After learning this type of computer, the Apple 1 computer, designed by a person named Steve Wozniak, was introduced. For the history of this type of computer, it should be said that when Steve Jobs first presented it among people, A friend of Wozniak’s offered to sell the computer.

And in the same year, this computer was sold at a price of $ 66,666, which later led to the production of about 200 other devices of this type of computer. Of course, after buying this type of computer, users had to buy a monitor and keyboard for it.As a result, after this type of action, IBM started a new business using which it sells the personal computer that it built and created. The company introduced its personal computer as 5150. The first introduction of its personal computer It was not, but it is considered as the most successful of them.

There was only 16 KB of memory on the computer, which used audio cassettes to load and store data, but many believe that the beginning of the explosion in the PC revolution of these two computers was from IBM.If we take a deeper look at the history of computers, we will see that many computers have been invented and distributed by many people, most of whom were abandoned due to their slow processing speed and people did not welcome them. However, in this section A number of them that were able to attract the attention of the majority of people are introduced.

This computer was created and provided by an Englishman named Code Breaker with the aim of finding and decrypting the messages sent between senior German commanders.This computer and computer, which used the vacuum tubes of leading transistors, was the introduction of computers and other machines such as electronic numerical integration, as well as computers built under the ENIAC project.

Eventually, after much work by John Bardin and Walter Bratin, under the supervision of William Shockley, they demonstrated their first patented transistor to the directors of the Bell Laboratory, and their invention became known as the Transistor Revolution because of its germanium material. The first computer with a transistor was later developed and made available to the public by Richard Grimsdale and Douglas Webb, and in collaboration with Tom Kilborn at the University of Manchester.

After the invention of the computer, the team used other techniques, including designs to produce modern types, in fact, in Bell Labs using measures such as oxide coating for their transistors, and thus it Developed.To describe this technique, it must be said that using this oxide coating caused it to be used for layered circuits.

Computer History

computer history

Following this collaboration, the team’s William Shackley left the group and left the Bella Specialized Laboratory, where they operated, and continued their activities in California, which included form semiconductors, and led to its launch. With a team he had formed, including Vigrodol Nemour and Robert Nevis, to develop their company and start silicon tools in it, these two introduced employees later set up the transfer themselves.

Eventually someone else built the integrated circuit as the first person to build it on modern chips, and it was made available to people, and there was no one but Jekyll B. who used these integrated circuits, which included circuits. Are small that are produced directly on semiconductor plates.

Then Jane Horney added a two-dimensional process to the development of silicon designs, and in the following years she wrote the process of building integrated circuits by commercializing them in large numbers. This is what happened to them for the first time.

In the same way, computers and computers went through the process of computer history and reached its present form, which has been placed in human hands. Of course, the present form and appearance of computers are not what they were made in the beginning. There were four categories of supercomputers and large computers, as well as small computers and microcomputers.

These computers were divided into analog, digital and hybrid according to the type of data processing they had done. However, at first, analog computers were replaced by digital computers after their use and due to their shortcomings. But as a result, in later periods, by combining them, another type of processing was created in them, which included hybrid computers.

Computers themselves have different categories and groupings, in order to study them, each of them must be categorized and introduced, in this article, only to introduce the history and reasons for making computers and the factors that caused humans to build The computer was invented and it was stated that the main reason for human beings can be speeding up their calculations without making mistakes, which led to the provision of new computers on a daily basis that included faster operating speeds.

Of course, it should be said that computers themselves do not have different components and parts, and a monitor is not enough, and the main part of a computer is its main strategy or motherboard. This part itself consists of components such as microprocessors and main chips that other computer hardware components such as CPU and graphics card, as well as external memory and many other items are placed on the main board.Of course, another part that is considered as one of the important parts of computers includes computer memory, whose task is to preserve and maintain people’s information.

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